U.S. Treasury Issues Inflation Bonds
On January 29, 1997, the U.S. Treasury's first-ever offering of debt designed to protect investors from inflation was a huge hit as buyers placed bids for $37.2 billion of the securities--five times the amount offered. The $7 billion of 10-year inflation-indexed notes were auctioned at an annualized fixed yield of 3.449%, which by the end of trading the yield was down to 3.38%.
The 10-year "inflation-indexed" bonds are formally called Treasury Inflation Protection Securities, or TIPS.
The fixed annual yield on standard 10-year Treasury notes was 6.62%.
I would like to take this opportunity to answer the following points:
1. The relationship between the return on such bonds and bonds in general.
2. What is the governments motivation for issuing them?
3. Who will buy them?
4. Why now?
5. Is the Yield to Maturity (YTM) a good measure of the yield on such bonds?
6. How do you measure inflation?
The Relationship Between The Return On Such Bonds And Bonds In General.
You should distinguish between two types of yields (i.e., rates of return): coupon rate vs. the market-determined yield on the bond, i.e., the yield to maturity (YTM). The coupon rate, set when the bonds are issued, determines the fixed cash-flows to be received by the investor over the life of the bond, while the YTM represents the opportunity cost, also referred to as the rate of required or expected rate of return.
price of the bond = coupon x PVIFA( n, YTM) + face value x PVIF(n, YTM)
What factors influence the YTM?
The YTM is compensation to the bond investors for assuming the sources of risk inherent in the bond. This compensation is for:
What Is The Governments Motivation For Issuing Them?
The governments proposal is to make the coupon rate fluctuate with inflation. This type of cash-flow arrangement is analogous to an adjustable rate mortgage. So what should such a feature do to the price of bonds?
It should, other things being equal, reduce the uncertainty associated with future inflation that investors face. But a lower uncertainty means a lower IP. Thus, the YTM should be lower. Hence, when the government issues these bonds, investors will require a lower financing rate than a similar bond which does not have such an inflation protection feature. Obviously, the lower financing charge should save the government some money and lower its deficit.
The above feature alone, however, does not guarantee a lower YTM for a given maturity date. The reason is the liquidity of these bonds. In general, U.S. Treasury bonds are very liquid and thus the associated LP is zero. Since these bonds are new, and if investors use them as a retirement investment vehicle (see below), then there might not be enough demand or supply for these bonds all the time. If this turns out to be the case, then investors are going to require a higher LP, driving the YTM up. The government is very aware of this fact, and this issue will be a factor in determining the amount to be issued.
Who Will Buy Them?
The government is targeting it as a new investment vehicle for retirement. Investors who are worried about inflation eroding the value of their investment will have a way to protect bond values against inflation.
Remember, if inflation increases, or if it is expected to increase, then IP increases, leading to a higher YTM. But YTM and bond prices are inversely related; that is, when YTM increases the price of the bond goes down. So how will these bonds protect the investor?
The coupon rate, which determines the size of the periodic cash flows paid to the bondholders, is not fixed; it is tied to the inflation rate. So when the YTM increases as a result of an increase in inflation, so do the cash flows, thus offsetting each other and leaving the price of the bond unaffected by changes in inflation.
As noted above, the liquidity of such bonds is crucial in securing low cost financing for the government. The rapid growth in 401(k) retirement plans increases the chances of success for such an endeavor. The government is betting that some mutual funds will be investing in these bonds, thus offering individuals an affordable opportunity to indirectly purchase these bonds with small investments of, say, $100.
Is The Yield To Maturity (YTM) A Good Measure Of The Yield On Such Bonds?
The YTM is that particular discount rate that equates the present value of a bonds cash flows with its market price. Thus, it is a rate of return that is implied by the market price of the bond at any given point in time. The drawback of such a measure of return is that it implicitly assumes that yields are equal over the life of the bond as you are calculating one discount rate for the life of the bond. This problem is not unique to the type of bonds we are considering here, but it makes the constant discount rate assumption even less convincing.
How To Measure Inflation?
The most widely used measure of inflation is the Consumer Price Index (CPI) which represents the price of a basket of consumer goods. Another measure is the Producers Price Index (PPI). Recently, however, some economists have cautioned against using the CPI as it overstates inflation. Thus, this will be another issue that the Treasury needs to resolve when it puts all the details together.
The bonds' coupon rate will be set when they are first offered through an auction. However, the face value will change depending on the inflation rate as measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI). For example, suppose the CPI runs at 3% at time of issue. If inflation runs at 4% for the next year, the face value of a $1,000 bond would be raised to $1,040.
Minimum investment: $1,000 for inflation-indexed Treasury bonds beginning Jan. 15, 1997; $50 for U.S. Savings bonds, beginning January 1998.
Term: 10 years for Treasuries; 30 years for savings bonds.
Where to buy: Consumers will be able to buy the new inflation-indexed Treasuries in January by calling a broker, the San Francisco Federal Reserve Bank (415-974-2330) or the Treasury Direct number (202-622-2960). Treasury Direct will require you to provide your Social Security number and information to make direct deposits into your bank account.
Ratings: These bonds are not rated as they are considered nearly free of default risk.
Taxes: Interest exempt from state and local taxes. Increases in principal and interest may be subject to federal taxes.
The Bureau of the Public Debt: For a summary of inflation-indexed Treasury bonds
U.S. Treasury Department or call (202) 622-2040.
By Alex Tajirian
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